The incentive to seek (expensive) formalization of communal land is high; experience compounded by legal uncertainty warns rural communities of the high costs of failing to do everything possible to entrench communal ownership in modern title deeds. Many of these young males who joined militias during the civil war are reluctant to go back to the same social structures that existed in their communities before the conflict. Climate Change and Natural Resource Management, Using Mobile Applications to Secure Tenure, Liberia: Land Governance Support Activity, Liberia: Land Rights and Community Forest Program, Liberia: Property Rights and Artisanal Diamond Development, Liberia: Land Policy and Institutional Support, Sierra Leone: Sustainable and Thriving Environments for West African Regional Development, Liberia: Land Conflict Resolution Project, Liberia: People, Rules and Organizations Supporting the Protection of Ecosystem Resources, The Challenge of Protecting Community Land Rights: An Investigation into Community Responses to Requests for Land and Resources. In this brief learn about: The reforms needed to … Every piece of land shall be classified as, and held under, one of four (4) distinct categories of land ownership in Liberia, as enumerated in Section (2) of this Article (7). Today, the dual tenure system and bias towards the statutory system continues to divide the indigenous people from the urban-based Americo-Liberian elites. It also lays down the requirements for the expropriation of land (eminent domain), and has a general provision on the treatment of exclusive marital property (GOL Constitution 1986). Likewise, local communities have no parity of bargaining power with concession holders and have no control over fundamental aspects of the social agreements. This has facilitated large transfers of land from indigenous tribes to settler elites, reducing the availability of arable land to local populations in the Hinterlands. The land-tenure system reflects this division of the population. The statutory land tenure system in Liberia has had a long history of rural neglect, with laws and practices systematically excluding rural communities. The overall strategy points to 75% forests being used for commercial forestry, 24% for conservation, and 1% for community use (GOL Community Rights Law with Respect to Forest Lands 2009b; Blore 2008; Lomax 2008; Wily 2007). … Donors include the World Bank, European Commission, the US Department of State (USDOS), the USDA Forest Service, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), FAO, Environmental Law Institute, Fauna and Flora International, and Conservation International (DAI 2008). On top of that, the power vacuum left by the FARC in Colombia is troubling The World Bank, UNDP, the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Liberia Ministry of Labor are supporting the improvement of solid-waste management (DAI 2008). The 1975 Act Establishing the New Public Health Law of Liberia Chapter 24 was the first law to control water pollution. The Environment Protection and Management Law empowers the EPA to develop and publish national guidelines for solid-waste management in cooperation with relevant institutions and in consultation with other stakeholders. The 2005 Public Procurement and Concessions Act requires public tendering of all concessions, including mining exploration concessions with the Public Procurement and Concessions Commission. This (once) rich ecosystem has faced severe deforestation; only ten percent of the original forest remains, of which around 40% lies in … In addition, during the civil war, a new national forestry law was passed, decreeing that forest resources (trees), as distinguished from forest lands, belong to the state. An agricultural survey has shown that women tend to access land through their husbands, and that they experience higher insecurity of tenure (Abril 2007). During the civil war, all major mines were closed, and the contribution of the sector to the economy declined to negligible levels for almost 15 years. Communities are shortening fallow periods, expanding into forest areas, and opening up swamplands for farming (Wily 2007). Agriculture plays an important role in the economy. Liberia accounts for more than half of … Only 4% of rural households and 25% of urban households have access to safe drinking water. CUSTOMARY LAND TENURE IN LIBERIA: FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS DRAWN FROM 11 CASE STUDIES . Agriculture provides a livelihood for the majority of the population, with most farming carried out on small landholdings, but there are also a number of large commercial plantations. Indigenous tribes rise up in violent rebellions to protect their territories. The 2009 Community Rights Law with Respect to Forest Lands is discussed below (GOL Public Procurement and Concessions Act 2005). Land tenure, due to its complex nature, causes many disputes and is strongly influenced by the settlement pattern (Ellen, 1978). Achieving agriculture-led food security through knowledge sharing, A global knowledge portal for climate change & development practitioners, USAID's knowledge sharing platform focused on land tenure and property rights, A collaborative learning community of development professionals, USAID’s sharing platform for resources on sustainable urban development. Aligning these laws is essential: clarity is achieved through taking all of these laws and facilitating the removal of contradictory sections. Since 2013, the Legislature has conducted multiple private and public consultations and public hearings. Small-scale alluvial diamond mining continued in Liberia under the UN sanctions regime. The Ministry of Lands, Mines and Energy has begun to address issues related to artisanal diamond mining under a program supported by USAID. Yet the Government faces huge challenges, including the need to jumpstart the economy. Statutory laws were introduced into Liberia in the 1820s by Americo-Liberian, “Congo”, There are no in-depth studies on freshwater resources or water tenure. Obtain a certificate of … This area is referred to as County Liberia or the Littoral, and is occupied mainly by the immigrant settlers who became the country’s political elite. Read more about SDI response to recent media reports; African farms need help, but the G8’s plan is for landowners, not the poor . Even in 2007, some towns, clans and chiefdoms set out to secure collective ownership in fee simple by buying their own land back from the government (Wily 2007). The Ad Hoc Presidential Commission on the Nimba County Inter-Ethnic Land Disputes was established to address ethnic dispute (Mandingo vs. Mano and Gio) in Nimba County, the primary battleground in the civil war (GOL 2008a). As a result, women’s rights to land and other property are often less secure than those of men. Some groups did so, acquiring collective titles to their lands. Environmental effects include siltation of dams and rivers; indiscriminate deforestation; additional degraded lands from miners’ settlement patterns; ground- and surface-water pollution, including acidic mine-drainage and heavy-metal pollution from copper, lead, arsenic, mercury or cyanide in highly mineralized zones; dust pollution; oil pollution from vehicle leaks and machinery; habitat fragmentation, decreased habitat effectiveness and increased mortality of wildlife; and displacement of and conflict with surrounding communities (USAID 2008; UNDP and EPA 2006). Through its ownership of nearly all forest resources, the government essentially decides how forest land will be distributed, including forest land used for conservation, commercial logging and community use. 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