Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. The refusal to work by members of a labor union who aim to close down a factory or other facility as a means of putting pressure on the employer to grant higher pay or other improvements in work conditions. But many farmers were subject to losing their farms to the banks that had loaned them money to live on until their crops came in. The Act also barred unions from contributing money to political campaigns. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees.http://www.afscme.org/about/aframlink.htm (accessed on February 20, 2003). In the first stage, it will argue the positive impact of the Industrial Revolution on economy and urbanisation. The source of the loans was depositors' money, which was now gone. If employers lacked orders for products, workers were told not to come in. By 1881 Gompers was active in establishing a union of unions, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada. Taxes were cut to make more money available to be spent (by both businesses and consumers), or to encourage businesses to invest in new factories as a means of stimulating economic growth. It became far easier to get around on trains, automobiles and bicycles. It also established the National Labor Relations Board, giving the federal government a role in helping companies and unions avoid strikes by providing professional mediators. Cotton mill workers from Indianapolis, circa 1908. The Tennessee Valley Authority built electricity-generating plants powered by water falling over dams, and as a result brought electricity to many farms for the first time. A system of organizing a society's economy under which ownership in machines and factories is private, rather than public. This opposition to organized labor characterized U.S. law as well. ." Employers used the fresh supply of inexpensive labor to combat the influence of trade unions and to keep wages low. Some observers feared that workers would start a revolution, similar to the 1917 communist revolution that had taken place in Russia just twelve years earlier. Addams, Jane. Mother Jones was a native of Ireland and the widow of George Jones, himself a union organizer in Memphis, Tennessee, who had died alongside their children in a yellow fever epidemic in 1867. The debate over tariffs continued right up to the early 1860s and was one of the issues that led to the American Civil War (1861–65). The period during the First Industrial Revolution saw the rise of industries mechanized by steam energy, the fast-paced textile industry, evolving stages of metallurgy, and metal works.Approximately, a century after the end of the First Industrial Revolution, the world witnessed a rapid shift from the conventional forms of the previous innovations. The problem was that English factories could produce cloth and ship it to the United States less expensively than native factories could make it. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Of particular interest to labor unions was the National Labor Relations Act, passed in 1935. Experts disagree on what causes an economic slowdown, and on how to stop the cycle and resume growth. People seldom bathed or washed their hair (once a month would have been common for working-class women in 1900). Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The census of 1900 showed that almost 20 percent of children aged ten to fifteen who lived in urban areas worked full time. Calhoun's protest raised the idea of secession (a state withdrawing from the United States) for the first time. Encyclopedia.com. The union pension funds came to be enormous pools of money that fund managers invested, sometimes in the very companies that were paying into the fund. Many investors decided that stocks were over-priced. The CIO was expelled from the AFL in 1937, and five years later, in 1942, the United Mine Workers Union withdrew from the CIO. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. On the one hand, the Republicans believed in letting business alone to pursue their interests as they saw fit, without government interference. Prior to 1890 it was perfectly legal for corporations to band together and behave in ways that promoted their own interests, such as agreeing not to lower prices on goods they all manufactured. This caused people to be infected with lung diseases and it was hard for people to keep their houses and clothes clean from the dust. MacArthur used tanks and soldiers with bayonets, justifying his controversial tactics on the grounds that he thought the United States was on the verge of a communist revolution. Many of these organizations are still active. To most business owners, labor was a commodity to be bought and sold, just like raw materials, and workers who tried to gain bargaining leverage by joining a union were treated as a threat to the power and economic well-being of industrialists. Second industrial revolution, which began somewhere in the 19 th century, is also known as the technological revolution.It is said to have begun in the 1840s and spread until the First World War. Jones moved from Memphis to Chicago and devoted the rest of her long life to organizing workers to achieve higher pay and shorter hours. The first factories were … Fearing a national emergency without continuing supplies of coal, President Harry Truman (1884–1972) took over operation of the mines on May 22, 1946, and threatened to draft striking miners into the army. Consequently, the company laid off (let go) some workers and reduced the pay of others by 25 percent. The second Industrial Revolution came about after the Civil War ended and early into the Twentieth century. ." Part of the aim was to pay the government's bills, but another goal was to help industries in the United States compete with foreign competitors. (Ford paid his workers better in part so they could afford to buy the cars they were making, generating more sales—and profits—for Ford.) In 1828, the tariff on manufactured goods was raised again, to 50 percent. . Pullman had built a town near Chicago, named after himself, which had a population of about 12,000. On the other hand, the Republicans resisted efforts supported by workers to pass laws that would limit the length of the work day or provide protection for women and children employed in factories. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. “Ford is a great hero,” Freeman says, “but the other side of the coin is a nightmarish vision of the factory as Satan’s province.”. The role of government changed significantly over the course of the Industrial Revolution, or, more exactly, notions of what the government should do about the economy changed. The American economic system had broken down almost completely. Practically every aspect of everyday life had altered dramatically over the past century. In the United States, 40 percent of the population lived in cities, up from just 6 percent in 1800. Mother Jones: The Most Dangerous Woman in America. Rockefeller often used the word Standard in company names. All these words represent the same basic thing: a widespread and relatively sudden decrease in economic activity. In 1898 fourteen were killed and twenty-five wounded in violence at acoal mine strike near Virden, Illinois. Reprint: Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. Among his greatest successes was convincing mine owners to pay for a union-operated health and welfare fund called the United Mine Workers' Health and Retirement Fund, which paid for miners' medical bills and provided a $100 monthly pension for miners who stopped working after age sixty-two. These ideas were often promoted in newspapers and magazines of the era. She was surprised when they refused. In 1914 automobile giant Henry Ford (1863–1947) made headline news when he started paying workers $5.00 a day—roughly double what other manufacturers were paying at the time. The period of U.S. history since 1952 (a year marked by the election of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower as president) might be best described as post-industrial, a period when the rapid changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution slowed. Forced to drop out of school at age ten in order to earn money for his family, he is known today as the founder of the Federation of Labor and the union leader who focused attention on purely union issues, like pay, benefits, and shorter hours, without concentrating on basic political changes, as the socialists favored. In 1897 nineteen striking coal miners were killed and thirty-six were wounded by a posse (an armed band) hired by the mine owner near Lattimer, Pennsylvania. (Ford paid his workers better in part so they could afford to buy the cars they were making, generating more sales—and profits—for Ford.) Life, Fall 1990, p. 62. The result of the breakup of Standard Oil was the formation of oil companies that were in operation ninety years later, with such names as Sohio (Standard of Ohio) and Standard Oil Co. New York (Mobil). . In this way, the unions came to own large parts of important businesses. Alleviating suffering among the poor was a lesser issue, carried out in England under the so-called Poor Laws that distributed government money to the very poor and sick through local churches (remembering that the Church of England was, and is, the official church of England and is supported by the government). How the Second Industrial Revolution Changed Americans' Lives Factory Jobs Were Grueling. The Taft-Hartley Act also gave the U.S. Attorney General the power to obtain a court order postponing a strike for eighty days if it threatened the national health or safety. Calculated in 2003 dollars, in 1914 a Ford worker earned around $28,000 a year while a typical worker earned around $14,000 a year. The combination of low pay for long hours (ten hours a day, six days a week was typical) and unsafe working conditions was characteristic of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution. The Second Industrial Revolution ended just before World War I, historians say. Among the organizations with English origins that took root in the United States were the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (brought to the United States in 1819), the Ancient Order of Foresters (American branch founded in Philadelphia in 1838), and the Freemasons, a large secret society with uncertain origins. Even though Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723–1790) had argued in 1776 in The Wealth of Nations that governments should refrain from meddling in economic matters, the reality is that people have come to expect the government to do something to improve the economy. After Roosevelt's death in 1945, Republicans continued to resist some New Deal programs, or to modify them. Calculated in 2003 dollars, in 1914 a Ford worker earned around $28,000 a year while a typical worker earned aroun… Almost from the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the people most directly affected by industrialization had responded. Encouraging the growth of industry by taxing imported manufactured goods (1820–1860). Because the Northern states were already growing in population faster than the Southern states, which entitled them to send more members to the House of Representatives, Calhoun foresaw a day when some states could, in effect, gang up on the others. What is Second Industrial Revolution? He also set aside funds that were used to help cigar makers who were injured, fell ill, or lost work. BIBLIOGRAPHY Encyclopedia.com. Having the union control the fund meant that workers would still receive a pension, even if the company for which they worked had gone out of business. Early 20th-century films like Fritz Lang’s sci-fi dystopia “Metropolis” or Charlie Chaplin’s assembly line comedy “Modern Times” capture this fear of the factory worker as a human robot. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell , Invented a device called"telephone." Some trains were set on fire. “Now they are working in a factory that is clock-regulated and unchanging.”. One of them was air pollution. From the mid-1930s it focused its efforts on influencing the Democratic Party to adopt positions that favored its members (as opposed to the owners of factories, whom the Republicans favored). Life got a whole lot faster. They are hired by company owners in an effort to defeat strikers. The act limited the ability of unions to require workers to join the union and pay dues, and the law banned secondary strikes (strikes against companies that were customers or suppliers of the firm that was the initial target of a strike). Such profound transformations hardly went unnoticed. Government has tried to stimulate economic growth almost since the beginning of the United States, with some presidential administrations being more active than others. According to Mantoux (30), there was arise in various classes of people among them the producer royales and state factories who had immense power attributed to … The result was a widespread shutdown of U.S. railroads, including those that delivered mail. 2. Companies, foreseeing much reduced demand, laid off workers. Should the government take a leading role in helping people suffering from unemployment, poverty, or homelessness? During the 1800s, the Industrial Revolution created dangerous environmental effects. In 1869, Uriah Stephens and some fellow garment workers in Philadelphia had founded the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor. In 1902 fourteen miners were killed and twenty-two were wounded at Pana, Illinois. Within a few years, economic activity had dropped sharply. The fraternal orders did, however, offer life insurance and medical insurance to members, filling a gap created by the surging population and lack of government alternatives. Workers were viewed as individuals who should agree to work for certain wages, or not work at all. Most of the strikers went back to work at their old wages. In 1940 Roosevelt volunteered to produce military supplies and lend them to Britain in its struggle against Germany. The sharp consciousness of stern economic conditions was thus thrust upon us in the midst of the season of good will.”. On May 1, 1886, members of the union went on strike against the McCormick Harvester factory in Chicago, Illinois, in an effort to reduce the workday to eight hours. The number of employees represented by unions grew from 3.6…, Unions Many strikes in the period from 1865 to 1900 turned violent as strikers tried to physically stop nonunion people from entering a struck company, or as companies hired private guards to escort strikebreakers (workers hired to replace the striking employees) through picket lines. Second Industrial Revolution Overview. "Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution The expansion of unions, and their influence, often took place through well-publicized events such as strikes, riots, or disasters, which in turn attracted workers from other companies or industries to join union ranks. Workers also tried to improve their lives through politics. He ordered that his grave be lined in concrete, fearing that resentful union members might try to vandalize it. To contain the power of these industrial leaders, the U.S. Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 and the Clayton Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act in 1914. In 1893 an economic downturn (the term "recession" was used a century later to describe this phenomenon) had reduced the demand for Pullman's cars. It was one of the most lopsided elections in U.S. history. The United States geared up in an unprecedented burst of industrial activity, producing ships, planes, tanks, rifles, ammunition, and every other conceivable tool of war. In 1914 automobile giant Henry Ford(1863–1947) made headline news when he started paying workers $5.00 a day—roughly double what other manufacturers were paying at the time. One of Jones's most famous campaigns took place in 1903, when at age seventy-three she led a long march of textile workers, half of them children, from Kensington, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, to President Theodore Roosevelt's house in Oyster Bay, New York, on Long Island. Such taxes, which had the effect of raising the price of imported materials (such as cotton fabric), are called tariffs, and they continue to be applied in the twenty-first century. What is called the first Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-18th century to about 1830 and was mostly confined to Britain.The second Industrial Revolution lasted from the mid-19th century until the early 20th century and took place in Britain, continental Europe, North America, and Japan. The labor federation defeated Gompers's bid for reelection to a one-year term as union president and instead chose John McBride, who favored a more political, socialist-oriented approach. Also that year, striking miners dynamited the Frisco Mill in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. The modern universities, research institutes and laboratories For many, the shift from rural to factory life was grueling—especially for children. The year 1893 saw the first of several violent strikes in Cripple Creek, Colorado. The union leader Debs was arrested for refusing to obey the judges' order to end the strike, and he was sentenced to six months in jail. What was the government to do, if anything? Other activities that became illegal were group boycotts, in which two companies refused to do business with a third company as a means of driving that third company out of business, and horizontal market division, in which companies agreed to stay out of each other's geographical areas. Greensboro, NC: Morgan Reynolds, 2000. “We discovered that for six weeks they had worked from seven in the morning until nine at night,” Addams later wrote, “and they were exhausted as well as satiated. Workers who tried to form a union were often fired immediately and banned from the premises, sending a strong message to other workers that union activities would cost them their jobs. Like the growth of companies and industries during the Industrial Revolution, the growth of unions was uneven and disorganized. The American Industrial Revolution commonly referred to as the second Industrial Revolution, started sometime between 1820 and 1870. In May 1932, about 10,000 veterans gathered in Washington to demonstrate their support for the bill. Yet after World War I, the railroad would be replaced by the automobile. Unio…, 25 Louisiana Avenue N.W. Sometimes, agriculture and industry have been in conflict, and industry did not always carry the day. Their incomes also were low, and they lacked modern things that provided comfort and enjoyment. The average non-Ford laborer earned less than $800 a year for a six-day workweek. The introduction of electricity and its two main uses aside from communications—electric motors and electric lighting—introduced some of the most dramatic and pervasive social changes of the Industrial Revolution. Washington, B.C. Official attitudes began to shift slightly by 1842, when the Massachusetts state supreme court ruled that another group of shoemakers had not violated the law by refusing to work for any company that paid less than the shoemakers' agreed-upon minimum wage. Even Henry Ford, who voluntarily doubled his workers' pay in 1914, was the target of bitter clashes a few years later between his company and unions representing his workers. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In 1914 company guards and Colorado militiamen fired into a union tent at Ludlow, Colorado, killing nineteen, including twelve children. Unions are organizations of workers who have banded together to bargain with an employer for higher wages, shorter hours, and other improvements in their working conditions. At its peak, the Ford Motor Company factory in Michigan employed 40,000 workers under one big roof. People who invest in such enterprises see the value of their investments rise steadily. The American Prospect, January 1, 2002, p. 41. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989. Indoor plumbing was rare except in the homes of the middle class (such as those of doctors). John L. Lewis: A Biography. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Social and Political Impact of the Second Phase of the Industrial Revolution. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. In October 1929 an event took place that eventually challenged whether the system of private ownership of business could survive. The dangers of factories were dramatized at 4:30 p.m. on March 25, 1911, when a fire broke out inside the Triangle Shirtwaist Company located on the top three floors of the Asch Building in New York City. In the United States, as more and more industrial enterprises opened (especially in New England) to manufacture goods (especially cloth), the government confronted the issue of whether, and how, to help these struggling companies succeed against larger, more established competitors in Britain. In 1947, for example, the Republican-controlled Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act over President Truman's veto. In 1864 Gompers joined the cigar makers' union, and ten years later he became the president of its local chapter (branch). In 1877 ten union activists were hanged in Pennsylvania; in 1892 eighteen miners and private guards died during the Homestead Strike near Homestead, Pennsylvania. It also was a setback for the campaign for the eight-hour workday. and socialism. Roosevelt had promised the American people a New Deal. Business owners viewed both as threats to their property and prosperity.) Historians conventionally divide the Industrial Revolution into two approximately consecutive parts. Second Industrial Revolution (1871-1914) Involved development of chemical, electrical, oil, and steel industries. (On the other hand, some of those who were most effective in building the influence of labor unions, including Samuel Gompers, were immigrants.). In addition, workers who lost a job suddenly found themselves without any income. Her prim, petite figure and snow-white hair, which she kept under a bonnet, prompted the nickname Mother Jones. Labor unions were not the only response by workers wishing to alleviate the misery of their living conditions. 2 Haradhan Kumar Mohajan: The Second Industrial Revolution has Brought Modern Social and Economic Developments and unintended consequences [40]. 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