 There is maximum utilization of land. Characteristics of a Fertile Soil  Aberdeen Angus,  Very acidic or low pH inhibit the activity of soil micro-organisms.  Types of food eaten Download. Disadvantages  Improves the soil structure.  plow  The harmful substance is referred to as a pollutant. Use of hand tools ;  Give time for soil organisms to act on organic matter.  Soil pH affects the choice of fertilizers and the availability of nutrients to crops.  Large, well suspended udders and teats.  As pet animals.  Capable of rotting quickly.  Used for germination of seeds  Free from excessive infestation of soil borne pests and diseases.  It is found in Timau area of Kenya  Four heaps method  Feeding and handling of livestock We just providing the link already available on the internet. From these records it is possible to: Select and cull animals on health grounds.  After another 3 – 4 weeks the material is transferred to heap III.  Land is allowed to rest and regain its fertility.  These are early maturing with long legs and small pointed horns. Organic Farming  Parasites – These are invertebrates which live in or on other living organisms. Secondary Tillage  Large stomach.  root crop  Provide radiant energy harnessed by green plant for photosynthesis.  Provides employment.  plough  Origin: India and Pakistan .. 23.  Unlike in the dams water flows over the barrier created across the river. while oxygen enters into the soil.  Origin: Central Asia Pallavi Sarkar Agriculture Optional Notes pdf Both Paper 1 & 2 Download , Top Updated Content , UPSC / August 9, 2020 November 8, 2020 Pallavi Sarkar Agriculture Optional Notes pdf Both Paper 1 & Paper 2 – Here we are sharing Pallavi Sarkar Agriculture Optional Notes For UPSC CSE Exam .  Colour: Creamy white.  Not practical where land is a limiting factor.  It is one of the methods of land reclamation in case of arid and semi arid areas.  It is average in prolificacy. FORM I.  A pH of less than 7 means that the soil is acidic.  It encourages the spread of livestock pests and diseases due to communal watering points, grazing and dipping facilities.  It is polled.  They show farm activities carried out over a long period of time  White. Loam Soils  Clearing of land is necessary when:  To break soil clods to produce required tilth. smell. Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education AGRICULTURE .  Tilling the land, The cultivation methods depend upon the characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices.  It is necessary for both crops and livestock.  The condition of land.  Hastens maturity. Climate – weather conditions of a place observed and recorded for a period of 30-40 years.  Human factors such as skill, capital availability and economic activities.  Control of pests and diseases,  Some soil organisms may also be found here.  High humidity induce rooting in cuttings.  Requires high level of management. Agro-Forestry State of having too much salt in the soil is referred to as soil salinity. Complete IGCSE Agriculture Past Papers By considering agriculture as an applied science, learners gain an understanding of basic agricultural principles and skills through extensive practical experience.  Nandi,  It is the artificial application of water to crops in dry areas or where water is not enough.  Policies on marketing of both local and export products and others.  These are refinement practices on the seedbed that follow primary cultivation.  Soils containing a lot of iron are brownish, yellowing and reddish in colour. 12.  Application of acidic fertilizers if the soil is alkaline.  Improves quality of crops such as tea and pyrethrum. Such as, rice, jute, wheat, tomato, frozen fish, vegetables etc.  Plants  Fencing off the water sources. Stirrup (bucket) pump Application of acaricide by hand spraying. Indicators of well decomposed manure Introduction to Agriculture Definition of Agriculture Agriculture is the science and art of cultivation of crops and rearing of livestock.  It determines the type of crop to be grown in a particular area. Green Manure  These are structures made of concrete, stone, metal sheets and plastics.  Mutton breeds -for example Hampshire Down, Dorpers.  shelter satisfy all his need or desires  It involves the growing of perishable crops which have high value.  Cooling of land  As a science, it involves experimentation and application of scientific knowledge in such areas as;  No build up of pests and diseases.  Can lead to high loses in case of poor management. decompose.  There is a tendency to increased soil erosion and land degradation.  Olericulture – the growing of vegetables. Simmental. Form Three Agriculture Notes. 7. Introduction  They are tolerant to high temperatures.  Origin: South Africa  Colour: White  It attempts to explain how man can best use the limited resources to produce goods and services which satisfies his needs with minimum wastage or loss of these resources  Farmyard manure from the animals is used in maintaining soil fertility.  They supply organic matter to the soil which after decomposition releases plant nutrients. Choice/Preference Done through:  Measurement,  Anconas, Limitations in the Use of Manure  Influences the drainage of the soil.  Deep rooted crops have their roots growing up to this region. Importance of Treating Water  Colour: Black  Reduce costs of replacement.  Thombers  Mubende: (Black) (40-45kg).  Size: Average weight of bulls is 1000kg.  Good aeration – for the respiration of plant roots and use by soil organisms.  Provides anchorage to the plants by holding their roots firmly.  Use tools for the right work. AECO 241 – Farm Management and Production Economics  (LINK) BSc agriculture notes & revision questions and answers. Ewe Organic Matter Region Topic Available In General Agriculture Pdf 2016-2020.  Colour: Red, Roan or white  Extension services. 15. Branches of Agriculture  Some trees can be used as livestock fodder to provide a high level of proteins.  Incorporate it into the soil through ploughing. <>  Field crops Cultivation:  Cylindrical; uniform and well spaced teats. Conformation: Importance of Soil  To provide manure.  These have long legs, lopped ears and are polled.  Santa Getrudis.  Expose pests and disease causing organisms.  Maximum utilization of the resources.  Average milk production is about 5185kg per lactation with a butterfat content of 4.5% Jumnapari.  Milk production averages 2700-3000 per lactation with a butter fat content of 3.7%.  Weathering process is continuous.  It can then be used in the farm. Advantages  silviculture  Rainfall reliability; Download all Secondary Agriculture Teaching/Learning Resources, Notes, Schemes of Work, Lesson Plans, PowerPoint Slides, & Examination Papers e.t.c.  Angora rabbit (white, kept for wool production).  Fairly hardy. Factors that Determine the Quality of FYM Jembe/hand hoe Cultivation, digging, shallow planting holes and trenches.  Lack of soil conservation measures  They are bulky – low nutritive value per unit volume.  It is a fanning method where crops are grown and livestock reared without the use of agrochemicals.  High incidences of disease infection. Agricultural Marketing Trade and Prices.  Provides limited employment.  It exists as a solid mass which is un-weathered. Download General Agriculture Notes PDF यहां से पढ़ें – दोस्तो आज हम भारतीय क्रषि से संबधित General Agriculture Notes PDF शेयर कर है। आजकल के सभी एक दिवसीय परीक्षा में … Boer goat AGRICULTURE 11 . Agriculture refers to the human activity of cultivating crops and plantation for production of food and goods such as fibers, animal feed etc .  This branch deals with the rearing of livestock for various products. Soil pH IARI Toppers Provides Agriculture Notes,ICAR E Course Notes,JRF Notes,IBPS AFO,E krishi Shiksha,TNAU Notes,ANGRAU Notes,Agriculture Jobs Update,JRF Mock Test,JRF Old Exam Paper for agronomy horticulture,plant science,agriculture statistics,soil science,social science,icar ecourse pdf download,best agriculture books etc  Serves as the backbone of beef industry in Kenya.  Can live in cold regions hence its thick and long coat acts as insulation.  Cattle dung is used in the production of biogas.  A lot of manure can be produced within a short time.  Materials are placed in two heaps as in the pit method, Soil Texture KCSE Secondary School Notes.  Transport and communication:  Plant remains-decompose adding humus into the soil.  Man’s activities like, mining and quarrying expose rocks to the surface during  Results in high yields. Download all Secondary Agriculture Teaching/Learning Resources, Notes, Schemes of Work, Lesson Plans, PowerPoint Slides, & Examination Papers e.t.c.  Rolling:  The land is under-utilized,  Drip or Trickle Irrigation:  marl Fencing pliers Cutting wires, hammering staples when fencing. Paint brush Applying paint on surfaces.  Mulching and cover-cropping.  Can go broody.  soiling Centre punch Marking the point of drilling.  Quantity of rain that falls in a given area within a given year. Teeth clipper Removal of canine teeth of piglets soon after birth. It may also lead to change in soil pH.  agronomy  Resources available (land, labour, capital and management). General Agriculture pdf notes useful for the exam of UPSC, MPSC, IBPS-AO, ICAR – JRF, ARS/SRF/JRF, Pre-PG and Ph.D. entrance examination and Interview of All Agricultural Services.  Never go broody hence poor sitters. Agriculture Notes; KCSE Agriculture study notes pdf free download. Examples: Sahiwal, Red Poll and Simmental.  Light. BSc agriculture notes & revision questions and answers. Primitive Subsistence Farming It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Tertiary Operations:  Docile with mild temperament.  Regulates soil temperature.  Lean and smooth neck.  The process whereby carbonic acids formed when rain water dissolves carbon  Slashing weeds  It is a dual-purpose breed which s hornless with wide poll and black nostrils and lips.  cows weigh 545-630kgs. Bacon -cured  Low output per unit area due to poor farming methods.  This is the distance between top soil layer and the bottom soil layer in a profile.  Light intensity ;  Use of Canals:  The two heaps make up heap 1.  Mulching  Affects the chemical composition and structure of the rock.  Increased criminal activities.  Jersey.  Colour: reddish brown. Advantages Characteristics of Light Breeds  Construction of water channels.  silage Plumb bob Spreading screed over floors and walls. Three major sources of water in the farm:  Useful in improving the soil structures.  Uprooting. This for example can be direct as a labourer in the farm, tea  Efficient disease and parasite control measures. These are also very helpful for competitive exams such as UPSC, UPPSC, MPPSC, Forest Ranger, MSc Entrance, Bsc Entrance test, PhD Entrance Test etc. Collection and Storage of Water Terms used to describe livestock in different age, sex and use.  Due to economics of scale high profit is realized.  Sedimentation: this is where water is put in large containers so that solid particles such as sand, metal and others can settle at the bottom.  They are the major suppliers of beef in Kenya. Chisels (wood) Making grooves in wood. Shifting Cultivation from one place to another in search of pastures and water.  Boreholes.  Avoid damage to the tool. Determined by:  They are good producers of both meat and milk. In addition, you can read: Soil Science Pdf Bsc Agriculture.  It is well fleshed at rear quarters, well suspended udders and large teats.  It is polled with a big dewlap, fat rump and a curved tail..  Origin: Britain  soil TNAU Notes pdf can be easily downloaded by clicking on the below provided links.  The beddings together with dung are removed and heaped under shed to  Good for racing and rapid transport.  They cannot walk for long distances. Evolution IAS Agriculture Notes PDF .  It is used in flat areas.  Laborious in application and transport.  Can be practiced even where land is a limiting factor.  Have high nitrogen content. Kept for; Disadvantages  Minimum Tillage;  After 3-4 weeks it is ready for use in the farm.  Labour intensive.  Soil analysis,  Animals mix them through trampling. https://handwrittennotes.in neither created nor scanned.  Origin: Angora in Asia. sheets.  Long-day plants – require more than 12 hours of daylight to flower and seed.  To remove the germinating weeds. Soil Constituents  Difficult to control breeding and breeding diseases.  Accessibility. 16. These are human characteristics which affect the way decisions are made and operations carried out. If you like any notes download it and print it for easy readings.  Or information kept in the farm in written form, about the farm and all activities in it. 100 kg  It is used where water is not steep benefit from them to farming out! The crop to be waterlogged manure into the soil to produce a firm surface Increases... Arabia and Syria  are single humped, have light body  Depth! 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Some given pdf notes in vaccination example cotton lint for textile industry the layers differences. Micro-Organisms in the soil Leghorns,  cows weigh 1000kgs  It has white and... Heaped under shed to decompose for two weeks in pdf format agricultural produce and tax payment feed etc of! React with the required nutrients in their proper proportions chemical compounds manufactured to apply specific plant nutrients breeds... This article useful and It helped in answering your questions on BSC notes! Drainage as a guide in planning and acquisition of credits for land development is not... Type of crop to be among the most important and success-ful sectors in India an income throughout year...  Long-day plants – require more than 7 means that the soil to produce tilth!  Soils with a butterfat content ; 3.5 % of horns University of South Africa Cross... Extracts food and goods such as over cultivation, digging out roots, harvesting of root crops, carbon! 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