The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a government that shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation, promote the general welfare, and secure to themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a régime of justice, liberty, and democracy, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. Due process is a law that hears before it condemns. National Territory. Early Filipinos has both written and unwritten laws. This clause in our fundamental charter means that no person shall be deprived of his life, liberty or property unless due process is observed. 6. 3 Essential part of the constitution. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. More information about Philippines is available on the Philippines Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet. The Auditor General shall examine, audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts from whatever source, including trust funds derived from bond issues; and audit, in accordance with law and administrative regulations, all expenditures of funds or property pertaining to or held in trust by the Government or the provinces or municipalities thereof. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. 7. (2) No bill shall be passed or become a law unless it shall have been printed and copies thereof in its final form furnished the Members at least three calendar days prior to its passage by the National Assembly, except when the President shall have certified to the necessity of its immediate enactment. Section 13. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. The existing laws on pleading, practice, and procedure are hereby repealed as statues, and are declared Rules of Courts, subject to the power of the Supreme Court to alter and modify the same. ARTICLE XVI.—SPECIAL PROVISIONS EFFECTIVE UPON THE PROCLAMATION OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE PHILIPPINES. 6. Posting comments and reminders, to me, is inappropriate concerned action. Section 14. (18) Bo person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. Section 21. 12. 3. The President, the Vice-President, the Justices of the Supreme Court, and the Auditor General, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, or other high crimes. (2) The heads of departments and chiefs of bureaus or offices and their assistants shall not, during their continuance in office, engage in the practice of any profession, or intervene, directly or indirectly, in the management or control of any private enterprise which in any way may be affected by the functions of their office; nor shall they, directly or indirectly, be financially interested in any contract with the Government, or any subdivision or instrumentality thereof. (20) No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. 13. All officers and employees in the existing Government of the Philippine Islands shall continue in office until the National Assembly shall provide otherwise, but all officers whose appointments are by this Constitution vested in the President shall vacate their respective offices upon the appointment and qualification of their successors, if such appointment is made within a period of one year from the date of the inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. With the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution by the Malolos Convention, the First Philippine Republic was born. Section 15. No person elected President may be re-elected for the following term, nor shall the Vice-President or any other person who may have succeeded to the office of President as herein provided at least one year before the election, be eligible to the office of President at such election. Another district without the concurrence of two-thirds of all the people should be the concern of the Assembly! 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